Duke Research Blog

Following the people and events that make up the research community at Duke.

Category: Behavior/Psychology Page 1 of 20

Visualizing Climate Change, Self, and Existential Crises

Nothing excites Heather Gordon like old Duke Forest archives do. (“Forestry porn,” she calls it.) Except maybe the question of whether a copy is inherently worse than its original. Or the fear of unperceived existence and dying into oblivion. Or a lot of things, actually.

Gordon, a visiting artist at Duke’s Rubenstein Arts Center, is blending data and art through origami folding patterns. She doesn’t usually fold her designs into three-dimensional figures (“I hate sculptures”), but the outcome is nevertheless just as—perhaps even more—exciting that way.

Heather Gordon, Durham artist
Heather Gordon, visiting artist at the Rubenstein Arts Center.
Photo by Michelle Lotker

Gordon happened to stumble upon the idea simply by proceeding through day-to-day life. Namely, she found herself growing increasingly frustrated by online security questions. “They’re always asking stupid things like ‘what’s your favorite pet’s name?’, and I can’t remember what I put 10 years ago,” she said. (And Gordon says she loves all her pets equally.)

Instead, she thought that data visualizations could make for a much more effective security protocol by making use of personal data that only the individual in question would know and remember. “A shape could define you,” she said.

Most recently at the Ruby, Gordon worked with the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library and the Duke University Archives to collect old photographs, spreadsheets, letters, and other documents that would contribute to her arts project. Gordon says she knew it was something she had to do when she found an archived letter addressed to Duke’s Dr. Clarence Korstian reading, “Thanks very much for the two shipments of twigs.” 

But what was most artistically compelling to Gordon was the light intensity data. Using the documented entries and calculations, she noticed that there were four quadrants in each plot, with 10 readings in each quadrant. Given this, Gordon used a compass to create a series of concentric arcs reminiscent of ripples in a pond. The final product put all four quadrants together to create a painting.

abstract painting
This pattern was derived from archival data on light intensity in the Duke Forest.
Photo by Robert Zimmerman

The second half of the Ruby project is directly linked to its title, UNLESS. Inspired by Dr. Seuss’ The Lorax, Gordon took the word “UNLESS,” converted each letter into its respective ASCII value, and mapped those numbers into a tree pattern. As in The Lorax, she hoped to tackle issues of resource management and climate change and the idea that unless something is done, climate collapse remains imminent.

For the final product, Gordon used tape to display the tree patterns in colored stripes onto the glass windows of the Ruby. The trees will remain on display into Spring 2020.

tape piece on the Ruby's windows
Gordon’s UNLESS on display at the Rubenstein Arts Center.
Photo by Robert Zimmerman

Yet Gordon’s portfolio neither begins nor ends with UNLESS.

For instance, she’s created an installation called ECHO, inspired by an old personal project of mapping a series of mostly failed “intimate communications” over the course of a year. “I realized I was just seeing what I wanted to see,” Gordon said, reflecting on the project. And thus ECHO was born as an examination of self-awareness, reflection, and authenticity.

The installation itself used strips of mirror tape in a pattern derived from dates of correspondence with Gordon’s close friends. With dancer Justin Tornow, she also put on a dance performance within the space. Unintentionally, ECHO also became a case study in the perception of copies versus originals; a hundred or so audience members chose to crowd around a tiny door to watch Tornow dance, even though the exact same performance was being broadcast live on TVs just a few feet away.

ECHO_Company_092
Tornow’s dance performance.
Photo courtesy of Heather Gordon

In another project, titled And Then The Sun Swallowed Me, Gordon revisits a childhood fear: “I was obsessed with the idea that the sun could go into supernova at any moment, and you wouldn’t know,” she explained. Even now, a similar panic persists. “I’m afraid of unperceived existence,” Gordon said. “No one will know about me 3,000 years later, and I stress about it.”

The folding pattern was made using the atomic radii of elements in suns that are capable of supernovas. Wrapped in black tape around the walls of a large room, the installation is explosive. In the center, a projection shows a swimmer swimming, though moving neither forward nor backward. It’s a Sisyphian swimmer, Gordon explains, forced to go through the motions but unable to find purpose.

And Then The Sun Swallowed Me, featuring a projected Sisyphian swimmer.
Photo courtesy of Heather Gordon

Gordon finds connections where most people can’t. There has long existed a gap between the sciences and the arts, but she seems to suggest that there need no longer be. And she also somehow manages to blend philosophy and existentialism quite gracefully with humor, youthfulness, and creativity. 

In essence, Gordon knows that there’s a lot in this world that’s worth freaking out over, but she handles it quite expertly.

By Irene Park

Wellness and the Ritual of Baking Challah

People find lots of different ways to cope with the stress of everyday life. One day Beth Ricanati, an internist at the Cleveland Clinic and the mother of three young children, was particularly overwhelmed. A friend of hers suggested that she make challah for the Jewish New Year,  Rosh Hashana

Challah is a traditional braided bread eaten on Shabbat, the Jewish sabbath as well as major Jewish holidays. It is customary to bake a round challah on Rosh Hashanah to symbolizes the year coming to a close and a new one beginning. 

A Traditional Loaf of Challah

Ricanati decided to take her friend’s advice. That Friday, before the sun went down signifying the start of Shabbat, she carved out thirty minutes to bake a loaf of Challah. 

Ricanati explained, “It was the most transformative experience because I just stopped.”

The talk was sponsored by Duke’s Forum for Scholars & Publics, a weekly forum where local, national, and global scholars can interact with the Duke community to generate greater exchange between the university and the broader world. It was facilitated by Duke Professor Kelly Alexander who brought the students in her first-year seminar “How ideas about food circulate across cultures and across film.”

Beth Ricanati
Kelly Alexander

Baking challah is a cultural and ritualistic practice. Ricanati explained that the first step of the recipe is to stop and think. When baking challah, it’s important to have an intention, to consider “why am I here and in whose merit am I making this bread?” This intention can be for others or for yourself. After the bread has risen the baker blesses it and takes a small piece off which represents the offerings that used to be made at the temple in Jerusalem. 

Ricanati is a women’s health expert and medical professional. She had never really baked before this. “Challah is not necessarily about the end product, about making a perfect challah. It is about the process.”

There are 613 mitzvot or commandments in the Jewish tradition and only three of them are specifically designated for women. Baking Challah is one of them. Challah is special because it is intended to nourish us both physically and spiritually.

Ricanati added, “When I took the challah out of the oven that day my house became a home.”

She enjoyed this experience so much that she decided to continue baking challah every Friday. Not only did it create thirty minutes a week for her to stop and reflect but it brought wellness into her life. As a result, she ended up writing a book titled Braided: a journey of 1000 challahs. The book focused on thinking about food as medicine and how to create wellness in one’s life. 

“To be well is more than just physical,” Ricanati said. Wellness is about both the mind and the body; it’s about a holistic treatment of the whole person. “Making challah, for me, is a way to embrace stress management.”

As a medical professional, Ricanati also explained the idea of Neuroplasticity, the ability of the brain to change continuously throughout one’s life. Our behaviors aren’t fixed and new behaviors have to be enjoyable in order to be sustainable. 

“The more I made the bread, the easier it became and the easier it became the more I made the bread,” she said.

After publishing her book, Ricanati got to meet others who had been inspired to start the ritual of baking challah in there own homes. Similarly, they too felt that the ritual brought unexpected wellness into their lives. Beyond this, Challah has the ability to strengthen a community — not only does baking lend itself to being a group event but there are people baking challah on Fridays all over the world.

“It is a gift to bake Challah because it feeds both your soul and your tummy.”

Post by Anna Gotskind

Responding to the Climate Crisis Through Dance

Kimerer LaMothe began her talk in an unconventional way, by singing a song. As she reached the refrain she repeated the words “everybody dances” and invited the audience to join her. 

She then posed an intriguing question: How can dance be a response to the climate crisis? In the western world, dance is usually seen as a recreational activity and here LaMothe was asking how it could be used as a tool or even as the solution to one of the largest issues of our time. I was definitely a little skeptical. 

Image by Geoffry Gee

The talk was a part of Duke’s Ruby Fridays organized by the staff of Duke Arts and the Rubenstein Arts Center. LaMothe was invited to contribute to the series which features casual art talks with the intention of connecting art across a multitude of disciplines.

Her response to the climate crisis began with a discussion about the body. LaMothe explained that for three and a half billion years after the planet was formed, there were no complex bodies on the planet, just microbes. She said they developed multicellular bodies because they needed to move.

“We build our knowledge of the world through the bodily movements we make,” she said.

The idea is that a body’s ability to move and interact with the world around it is a form of dance. This is especially demonstrated by how human babies interact with their caregivers. Human babies, unlike many other animals, are extremely reliant on their caregivers and must find a way to communicate with them. Thus, they use movement to garner attention. They have an impulse to connect and use patterns of movement like a smile or a snuggle to make sure they are taken care of. What results is something like a dance.

LaMothe described it as, “A vital human expression of kinectivity.”

Using movement and dance as a way to connect or interact, however, is important to human life past infancy. Many different cultures around the world use dance as the primary ritual of their community.

One example LaMothe gave was the healing dance practiced by the Bushmen of the African Kalahari. They use dance to “stir energy” and understand any pain. As the dancing intensifies the energy grows. 

LaMothe explained that this allows them to “enter what they call first creation, a perception of reality where everything is changed and everything is changing.”

Through this, the healer can see the capacity of that pain to change and help the members release the pain. The idea is that to dance is to heal both themselves and the earth. 

Still, the question remains: How does dance heal the earth? The earth that is facing ecosystem collapse, species extinction, and overexploitation. The past five hundred years have exponentially brought us to the brink of the climate crisis. These are the same centuries that Europeans traveled around the world colonializing and overtaking native lands. One of the main ways colonists tried to make native people civilized was by stopping them from dancing.

LaMothe stated, “Native communities were told to stop dancing and instead make “progress towards civilization.”

In many places, it actually became a crime to dance. In fact, until 1932 it was against the law for native people to engage in ceremonial dances in the United States. Furthermore, in efforts to “civilize” people, a focus was placed on learning through reading and forsaking movement as a way to gain knowledge. This “civilized” culture also abandoned the awareness and respect native communities showed towards the environment around them. Dance not only allowed them to connect with each other but with the earth. This connection was reflected in the other parts of their life resulting in sustainable living and caring for the earth.

In LaMothe’s words, “dance can catalyze a sensory awareness of our own movement making.” 

An Image from LaMothe’s Presentation Featuring People Participating in
Climate Conscious Dance

She explained that through climate-conscious dance we can reconnect ourselves with the environment and help restore the earth.

One example she gave of how to do this is through events like Global Water Dances where people can participate in events all over the world to dance and raise consciousnesses about how to protect water.

In 2005 after teaching at both Brown and Harvard, LaMothe moved to a farm with her family so she could write and dance in an environment closer to nature. She has written six books, created several dance concerts and even a full-length musical titled “Happy If Happy When.” She spends her time writing, singing, dancing, and tending to the farm alongside her family.

Post by Anna Gotskind

The Anthropology of “Porkopolis”

Alex Blanchette, cultural anthropologist and lecturer in anthropology and environmental studies at Tufts University, is a scholar of pork production.

As America’s pork industry is continually pushed to ever greater production, so are the human beings who labor to breed, care for, and slaughter these animals.

Blanchette, who gave a talk hosted by the Ethnography Workshop at Duke on November 4th, said there is an intimate relationship between pig and person. The quality of the factory farm worker’s life is tied to that of the porcine species.

Alex Blanchette of Tufts University

Blanchette’s current work will be published in the 2020 ethnographic book – Porkopolis: American Animality, Standardized Life, and the “Factory” Farm. The book is focused on the consequences of human labor and identity that are bound to the pig – an animal which has become more industrialized over time due to corporations’ goal of a mass produced, standardized pig predictable in nature, uniform in existence, and easy to slaughter.

A common practice in factory farming is the ‘runting’ of litters, genetically making piglets smaller to increase the number each sow produces. But this practice has propelled a fundamental shift in the need for human workers to act as neonatal nurses, what Blanchette calls “external prosthetics,” to care for the newborns. Blanchette described one extraordinary worker responsible for taking care of piglet litters, saving the weak and deformed after birth. She has taken measures so drastic as to give a piglet mouth-to-mouth, incubate them in her pockets, and quickly form body-casts out of duct-tape for the small creatures. This worker has had the chance to study over 400,000 piglets in her seven-year career, encountering conditions of the pig body that no scientist has seen in real life.

Blanchette explained the active engagement required in any portion of the factory production. For example, people working with pregnant sows have to be extremely conscious of the way that the pigs are perceiving them to keep the sensory state of the mother pigs balanced. This means avoiding touching them unless work requires it, not wearing perfumes on the job, and taking overall care and precision in every motion throughout the workday. The danger is the risk of causing mass miscarriages and spontaneous abortions within a barn of sows because of their genetically engineered weakness and inability to handle stresses.

Piglets nursing in a device known as a farrowing crate.

Blanchette said one worker could be seen standing in the exact same place over the course of 1,000 compiled picture frames. He developed this habit to prevent large hogs in open pens from knocking him down and biting his legs while he was working. This is something that Blanchette said he couldn’t manage for more than a few minutes even though he too has worked within the pork industry before.

Workers on slaughter and “disassembly” lines are responsible for making the same exact cut or slice 9,500 times a day.

And finally, the conformation of human labor to the precisions of the factory pig often does not stop at the end of the work shift. In rural factory farming areas, corporations try to re-engineer the human communities in which their workers live to further regulate the human body outside of work because of potential impacts on the pigs. For example, workers’ socialization has been monitored by companies in some cases due to the threat of communicable disease reaching the hogs through human kinship.

No worker knows the pig from birth to death, but for the individual portion of the pig’s life for which they are responsible, they are bound intimately and intricately to the hog, Blanchette said. These people are also disproportionately people of color and immigrant workers who are underpaid for how strenuous, demanding, and encapsulating this labor is. Workers in factory farms often have little protections, and Blanchette’s work gives new life to the consequences of industrial capitalism in America as the pig has become a product of vertical integration in rural communities.

We have long been moving at the speed limits of human physiology in the pork industry,  Blanchette said. In 2011, one company’s annual effort to improve their corporation was to build a new human clinic on the jobsite to treat cuts and injuries acquired on the slaughter lines. This clinic was also responsible for assessing new hires in order to match the strongest part of their body to a place on the line where they would be most productive.

The interior of a typical confined animal feeding operation (CAFO).

Factory farms are actively searching for new money to be found in the pig and to have a closed-loop system which uses every aspect of its life and death for profit. This has caused a deep integration of the “capital swine” into everyday human life for the laborers and communities sustained by these economic ventures.

The Trump administration recently removed standards for pork slaughter line speeds and ultimately reduced overall regulations. People like Blanchette are already considering something you too might be wondering, What happens next? Where does pork and the human labor behind it go from here?

Post by Cydney Livingston

Dreams of Reality: Performing Dementia

White Lecture Hall’s auditorium is a versatile space. It hosts classes, speakers, and student organizations. And this Wednesday, White 107 was an institution for the elderly, an elementary school classroom, a lake, and an old blue house.

On October 23, Duke welcomed solo artist Kali Quinn to the stage to perform her now 13-year-old, one-woman show, Vamping. Vamping is an artistic and humanistic rendition of dementia, inspired by Quinn’s personal experience with a grandmother who moved into an institution just as Quinn was leaving for college on the other side of the country. It tells the story of 91-year-old Eleanor Butler, who drifts in and out of old memories, joys, and regrets as she experiences dementia in an elderly care facility.

Eleanor undergoing a PET scan

Throughout the hour-long performance, the physicality of the stage remains constant. There is one actor, Quinn herself, accompanied by a few props: a projector, a wheelchair, a blanket, a voice recorder. Yet each of these, Quinn included, shapeshift constantly. Quinn plays not only Eleanor, but also a caregiver, a granddaughter, and Eleanor’s younger selves at different stages of life.

That’s what dementia is like, Quinn explains. It’s experiencing a hundred different things all at once. 

“I don’t know what’s dream and what’s awake,” says an elderly Eleanor as she returns from an old memory and just before she’s immersed into another one.

Vamping captures the existence of identity and personhood in diagnosis, according to Jessica Ruhle, Director of Education at the Nasher Museum of Art. While the story has no clear plot and no clear resolution, it flows in a way that is real and personal. At 91, Eleanor re-experiences her elementary school spelling bee, her 16-year-old flirtationship with the boy who would become her husband, the birth of her first child, her regret at not being a better wife and mother and grandmother, and so much more. She doesn’t particularly succeed in making sense of it all, but neither does she try. The resolution is simply an acceptance of life’s complexity.

A series of memories, materialized through pieces of film, are held over a 91-year-old Eleanor. This is the last scene of the performance.

Janelle Taylor, a medical anthropologist at the University of Toronto and one of the panelists following the performance, explained that this complexity is what differentiates pure medicine from an anthropological approach. “I do kind of the opposite of what medicine does,” she said. “Medicine makes sense of things by excluding possible causes and contexts. Anthropology seeks to bring it all together.”

The entanglement of all these different possible factors perhaps explains why Quinn’s performance also offers glimpses into the lives of caregivers, family members, and others who share in the experience of dementia. In many cases, a single diagnosis affects a far larger network than just the diagnosed patient.

And though that’s true in Vamping as well as the panelists’ experiences with dementia, they acknowledge that other stories of the same condition often go untold. “We’re very alike in our whiteness, our economic condition and ability to afford professional care,” said Ruhle, referring to herself and Quinn. After all, Eleanor experiences dementia within a care institution—which, according to Eleanor in the play itself, costs about $85,000 per year.

Taylor added that she was searching for more data on diagnosed persons who have no healthcare or no family. Unfortunately, there isn’t much existing research on such people, and the data are difficult to find. And adding onto that, there are many cases of dementia that are never formally diagnosed at all.

But even so, Quinn’s performance is important to share. Vamping doesn’t attempt to do the impossible by telling a universal narrative of aging and dementia; instead, it gives an immensely personal and humanistic story of one patient’s experience of life.

Even the cold realities play into its personal nature as well. As Eleanor exclaims at one point in the performance, more money is spent yearly on Viagra and breast implants than on Alzheimer’s. The implication is clear: there’s a need for more research, and there’s a need for more humanness.

By Irene Park

Does aging make our brains less efficient?

We are an aging population. Demographic projections predict the largest population growth will be in the oldest age group – one study predicted a doubling of people age 65 and over between 2012 and 2050. Understanding aging and prolonging healthy years is thus becoming increasingly important.

Michele Diaz and her team explore the effects of aging on cognition.

For Michele Diaz, PhD, of Pennsylvania State University, understanding aging is most important in the context of cognition. She’s a former Duke faculty member who visited campus recently to update us on her work.

Diaz said the relationship between aging and how we think is much more nuanced than the usual stereotype of a steady cognitive decline with age.

Research has found that change in cognition with age cannot be explained as a simple decline: while older people tend to decline with fluid intelligence, or information processing, they maintain crystallized intelligence, or knowledge.

Diaz’s work explores the relationship between aging and language. Aging in the context of language shows an interesting phenomenon: older people have more diverse vocabularies, but may take longer to produce these words. In other words, as people age, they continue to learn more words but have a more difficult time retrieving them, leading to a more frequent tip-of-the-tongue experience.

In order to understand the brain activation patterns associated with such changes, Diaz conducted a study where participants of varying ages were asked to name objects depicted in images while undergoing fMRI scanning. As expected, both groups showed less accuracy in naming of less common objects, and the older adult group showed a slightly lower naming accuracy than the younger.

Additionally, Diaz found that the approach older adults take to solving more difficult tasks may be different from younger adults: in younger adults, less common objects elicited an increase in activation, while older adults showed less activation for these more difficult tasks.

Additionally, an increase in activation was associated with a decrease in accuracy. Taken together, these results show that younger and older adults rely on different regions of the brain when presented with difficult tasks, and that the approach younger adults take is more efficient.

In another study, Diaz and her team explored picture recognition of objects of varying semantic and phonological neighborhood density. Rather than manipulation of how common the objects presented in the images are, this approach looks at networks of words based on whether they sound similar or have similar meanings. Words that have denser networks, or more similar sounding or meaning words, should be easier to recognize.

An example of a dense (left) and sparse (right) phonological neighborhood. Words with a greater number of similar sounding or meaning words should be more easily recognized. Image courtesy of Vitevitch, Ercal, and Adagarla, Frontiers in Psychology, 2011.

With this framework, Diaz found no age effect on recognition ability for differences in semantic or phonological neighborhood density. These results suggest that adults may experience stability in their ability to process phonological and semantic characteristics as they age.

Teasing out these patterns of decline and stability in cognitive function is just one part of understanding aging. Research like Diaz’s will only prove to be more important to improve care of such a growing demographic group as our population ages.

Post by undergraduate blogger Sarah Haurin

Post by undergraduate blogger Sarah Haurin

On ‘Things We Already Know,’ Checklists and Mindfulness

I recently spoke to the Academic Council about my new role overseeing Duke’s entire research enterprise – medical and campus –  and I reiterated for them the messages in my first blog post: that all of us should take part in the quality and rigor of Duke’s research efforts and that everyone should participate in activities like Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) training and other activities that will help us to improve.

Not all the faculty are persuaded, I soon learned.

“I read your recent blog post about quality. Clearly that was not meant for me,” one senior faculty member said to me. He suggested that my reminding the community of such matters was beneath him, and probably beneath many other faculty. “Of course we treat people with respect! Of course we always do research the right way!”

In response, let me share with you an important lesson from a book I read recently, “The Checklist Manifesto,” by Atul Gawande. He’s a general and endocrine surgeon at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston who advocates the use of checklists for surgeons, just as pilots and space programs have used.

Dr. Atul Gawande

Checklists impose structure, they force us to think more slowly and carefully, and to systematically address specific questions of relevance to the mission, even if it’s a procedure we’ve done countless times before. Pilots and astronauts aren’t insulted by them.

At the end of his book, Gawande writes about his personal use of checklists in his surgical practice and a very important lesson he learned by using them.

When he first started thinking about checklists, Gawande thought it was an interesting subject, and that it was highly relevant to the average surgeon. However, with respect to himself, a top-flight surgeon, a former Rhodes Scholar and a MacArthur Fellow, he felt the exercise was probably redundant.

But since he had written and spoken so much about checklists, Gawande always went through the motions, just to avoid looking like a hypocrite. That is, until a particular surgery humbled and changed his perspective on checklists forever.

Gawande was about to perform a surgery, and the head nurse was going down the list of items needed for this particular procedure. All items checked off as expected until they came to the need for a substantial supply of blood in case of a rare complication that could cause severe bleeding.

This item surely was added after a prior disaster and a root-cause analysis that refined the checklist for this type of surgery. But as they went down the checklist, the extra blood was absent. So the team quickly got the blood, and the surgery commenced.

To Gawande’s horror, this particular surgery triggered that rare complication. But because they had the substantial supply of extra blood on hand, the surgical team was able – with great effort — to save the patient’s life.

Gawande says he was chastened by this experience. Without attention to the checklist, this patient would have died on the table.

But academic research isn’t anything like flying a plane or opening an abdomen, or is it? I think the stakes for university research are very high. Duke just settled a case related to research misconduct that cost the university more than $100 million, and damaged our reputation. It might have been prevented.

Pilots routinely use checklists before and during flight.

We have a responsibility to be good stewards of the more than $1 billion in annual funding that allows us to do this important work. The organizations that entrust us with those resources (often the federal government) are counting on us to use those resources well, and to engage in research of the highest quality. The stakes are high, and so should be our responsibilities.

While they aren’t a perfect analogue to things like RCR training, safety checklists address predictable human fallibility, which is often a result of thinking instinctually rather than carefully. RCR training, conflict of interest forms, institutional review boards and other research controls seek to address issues in the same way, by identifying problems that have come up in the past at Duke or other institutions and trying to prevent these lessons from having to be learned again (analogous to the need for extra blood).

I also think it’s important that another key component of checklists is cultural: Anyone on the surgical team is allowed to question anything before or during the surgery. This means that a junior nurse on the team can challenge the lead surgeon if they see something that is in conflict with best practice or the checklist. If you see something, say something.

Anyone at Duke who sees behavior that challenges the values connected to the principles of our checklists – conflict of interest, institutional review board, responsible conduct of research — has the right, and the responsibility, to say something.

Inviting faculty, trainees and staff to engage with training does not mean we feel our people are unaware of these issues. It does not mean we feel that Duke researchers lack integrity. It is just that we are all very busy and focused on many things, and we are human.

I’m asking all of us to slow down for a moment, and to remind ourselves of our responsibility to ourselves, to the broader Duke community, and to our research sponsors. We want to set a tone and a culture that will help all of us push the Duke research enterprise to even higher levels of excellence.

Post by Larry Carin, Vice President for Research

Predicting sleep quality with the brain

Modeling functional connectivity allows researchers to compare brain activation to behavioral outcomes. Image: Chu, Parhi, & Lenglet, Nature, 2018.

For undergraduates, sleep can be as elusive as it is important. For undergraduate researcher Katie Freedy, Trinity ’20, understanding sleep is even more important because she works in Ahmad Hariri’s Lab of Neurogenetics.

After taking a psychopharmacology class while studying abroad in Copenhagen, Freedy became interested in the default mode network, a brain network implicated in autobiographical thought, self-representation and depression. Upon returning to her lab at Duke, Freedy wanted to explore the interaction between brain regions like the default mode network with sleep and depression.

Freedy’s project uses data from the Duke Neurogenetics Study, a study that collected data on brain scans, anxiety, depression, and sleep in 1,300 Duke undergraduates. While previous research has found connections between brain connectivity, sleep, and depression, Freedy was interested in a novel approach.

Connectome predictive modeling (CPM) is a statistical technique that uses fMRI data to create models for connections within the brain. In the case of Freedy’s project, the model takes in data on resting state and task-based scans to model intrinsic functional connectivity. Functional connectivity is mapped as a relationship between the activation of two different parts of the brain during a specific task. By looking at both resting state and task-based scans, Freedy’s models can create a broader picture of connectivity.

To build the best model, a procedure is repeated for each subject where a single subject’s data is left out of the model. Once the model is constructed, its validity is tested by taking the brain scan data of the left-out subject and assessing how well the model predicts that subject’s other data. Repeating this for every subject trains the model to make the most generally applicable but accurate predictions of behavioral data based on brain connectivity.

Freedy presented the preliminary results from her model this past summer at the BioCORE Symposium as a Summer Neuroscience Program fellow. The preliminary results showed that patterns of brain connectivity were able to predict overall sleep quality. With additional analyses, Freedy is eager to explore which specific patterns of connectivity can predict sleep quality, and how this is mediated by depression.

Freedy presented the preliminary results of her project at Duke’s BioCORE Symposium.

Understanding the links between brain connectivity, sleep, and depression is of specific importance to the often sleep-deprived undergraduates.

“Using data from Duke students makes it directly related to our lives and important to those around me,” Freedy says. “With the field of neuroscience, there is so much we still don’t know, so any effort in neuroscience to directly tease out what is happening is important.”

Post by undergraduate blogger Sarah Haurin
Post by undergraduate blogger Sarah Haurin

Vaping: Crisis or Lost Opportunity?

Wikimedia Commons

Whether you’re doing vape tricks for YouTube views or kicking yourself for not realizing that “USB” was actually your teenager’s Juul, you know vaping is all the rage right now. You probably also know that President Trump has called on the FDA to ban all flavored e-cigarettes to combat youth vaping. This comes in reaction to the mysterious lung illness that has affected 1,080 people to date. 18 of them have died.

At Duke Law School’s “Vaping: Crisis or Lost Opportunity” panel last Wednesday, three experts shared their views. 

Jed Rose, a professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences and director of the Duke Center for Smoking Cessation, has worked in tobacco research since 1979, focusing on smoking cessation and helping pioneer the nicotine patch. Rose also directs Duke’s Center for Smoking Cessation.

According to Rose, e-cigarettes are more effective than traditional Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT). A recent study found that e-cigarettes were approximately twice as effective as the state-of-the-art NRT in getting smokers to quit combustible cigarettes (CCs). This makes sense because smokers are addicted to the action of puffing, so a smoking cessation tool that involves inhaling will be more successful than one that does not, like the patch.

Rose also took issue with the labeling of the current situation surrounding vaping as an “epidemic.” He called it a “crisis of exaggeration,” then contrasted the 18 deaths from vaping to the 450 annual deaths from Tylenol poisoning

Even in the “pessimistic scenario,” where e-cigarettes turn out to be far more harmful than expected, Rose said deaths are still averted by replacing cigarettes with e-cigarettes. 

The enemy, Rose argued, is “disease and death, not corporations”, like the infamous (and under-fire) Juul. 

James Davis, MD, an internal medicine physician and medical director for the Center for Smoking Cessation, works directly with patients who suffer from addiction. His research focuses on developing new drug treatments for smoking cessation. Davis also spearheads the Duke Smoke-Free Policy Initiative.

Davis began by calling for humility when using statistics regarding e-cigarette health impacts, as long-term data is obviously not yet available. 

Davis did present some known drawbacks of e-cigarettes, though, stating that e-cigarettes are similarly addictive compared to conventional cigarettes, and that a whopping 21% of high school students and 5% of middle school students use e-cigarettes. Davis also contended that “When you quit CCs with e-cigarettes, you are merely transferring your addiction to e-cigarettes. Eighty-two percent [of test subjects who used e-cigarettes for smoking cessation] were still using after a year.” 

However, according to Davis, there is a flipside. 

Similar to Rose, Davis looked to the “potential for harm reduction” — e-cigarettes’ morbidity is projected to be only 5-10% that of CCs. If the main priority is to get smokers off CC, Davis argues e-cigarettes are important: 30-35% of CC smokers say they would use an e-cigarette to quit smoking, where only 13% would use a nicotine patch. 

Furthermore, Davis questioned whether the mysterious lung disease is attributable to e-cigarettes themselves — a recent study found that 80% of a sample of afflicted subjects had used (often black-market) THC products as well.

Lauren Pacek, an assistant professor in psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Duke, examines smoking in the context of addiction and decision-making.

Pacek stated that flavored electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are important to youth: 61-95% of current youth ENDS users use flavored products, and 84% of young users say they would not use the products without flavors. So, banning flavored ENDS would ostensibly reduce young adults’ use, potentially keeping them off nicotine entirely.

However, Pacek pointed to the importance of flavors for adult users too: the ones that are purportedly using ENDS not for recreation or social status (as young people have been known to do), but for smoking cessation. Many former CC smokers report that flavored ENDS were important for their cessation. By banning flavored ENDS, the products look less appealing, and smokers are more likely to return to much more harmful cigarettes.  

So where do we go from here? 

Pacek did not take a concrete stance, but said her “take-home message” was that policymakers need to consider the impact of the ban on the non-target population, those earnest cigarette smokers looking to quit, or at least turn to a less harmful alternative. 

Rose also did not offer a way forward, but made clear that he does not support the FDA’s impending ban on flavored e-cigarettes and thinks the hysteria around vaping is mostly unfounded.

Davis did not suggest a course of action for the US, but as leader of Duke’s Smoke-Free Policy Initiative, he certainly suggested a course of action for Duke. The Initiative prohibits combustible forms of tobacco at Duke, but does not (yet) prohibit e-cigarettes. 

By Zella Hanson

Across the Atlantic: Caribbean Music and Diaspora in the UK

According to Professor Deonte Harris, many of us here in the U.S. have a fascination with Black music. But at the same time, we tend not to realize that it’s. . . well, Black music.

Harris, an International Comparative Studies professor at Duke, holds a freshly minted Ph.D. in Ethnomusicology from UCLA. At the moment, his research focuses especially on the practice and influence of Afro-Caribbean music and diaspora in London.

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Deonte Harris, Ph.D.,
Assistant Professor of the Practice of the International Comparative Studies Program

He chose to conduct his research in the UK because of its large overseas Caribbean population and because he found that not much scholarship was dedicated to Black Europe. “It’s such a rich space to think about different historical entanglements that affect the lives and trajectories of Black people,” he explained.

Those entanglements include the legacies of colonialism, the Slave Trade, empire, and much more. The racialization of such historical processes is necessary to note.

For example, Harris found that a major shift in Black British music occurred in the 1950s due to anti-Black racism in England. Black individuals were not allowed to socialize in white spaces, so they formed community in their own way: through soundsystems.

These soundsystem originated in Jamaica and debuted in the UK in the postwar years. A soundsystem was the organization of Black individuals, music, and machines, typically in basements and warehouses, for the enjoyment of Black music and company. It became a medium through which a Black community could form in a racialized nation.

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Notting Hill Carnival, London: An annual celebration of Black British culture.
Photo by Dominic Alves.

Today, Black British music has greatly expanded, but still remains rooted in sound systems.

While the formation of community has been positive, Harris explains that much of his research is a highly complex and often disheartening commentary on Blackness.

Blackness has been created as a category by dominant society: the white community, mostly colonizers. Black music became a thing only because of the push to otherize Black Britons; in many ways, Black culture exists only as an “other” in relation to whiteness. This raises a question of identity that Harris continues to examine: Who has the power to represent self?

In the U.S. especially, Black music is a crucial foundation to American popular music. But as in the UK, it finds its origins in community, folk traditions, and struggle. The industrial nature of the U.S. allows that struggle to be commercialized and disseminated across the globe, creating a sort of paradox. According to Harris, Black individuals must reconcile “being recognized and loved globally, but understanding that people still despise who you are.”

To conduct his research, Harris mostly engages in fieldwork. He spends a significant amount of time in London, engaging with Black communities and listening to live music. His analysis typically involves both sonic and situational elements.

But the most valuable part of Harris’ fieldwork, perhaps, is the community that he himself finds. “Ethnomusicology has for me been a very transformative experience,” he said. “It has helped me to create new global relationships with people ⁠— I consider myself now to have homes in several different places.”

By Irene Park

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