Duke Research Blog

Following the people and events that make up the research community at Duke.

Category: Students Page 1 of 26

Science Gets By With a Little Help From Its Friends

There are many things in life that are a little easier if one recruits the help of friends. As it turns out, this is also the case with scientific research.

Lilly Chiou, a senior majoring in biology, and Daniele Armaleo, a professor in the Biology Department had a problem. Lilly needed more funding before graduation to initiate a new direction for her project, but traditional funding can sometimes take a year or more.

So they turned to their friends and sought crowdfunding.

Chiou and Armaleo are interested in lichens, low-profile organisms that you may have seen but not really noticed. Often looking like crusty leaves stuck to rocks or to the bark of trees, they — like most other living beings — need water to grow. But, while a rock and its resident lichens might get wet after it rains, it’s bound to dry up.

If you’re likin’ these lichens, perhaps you’d like to support some research…

This is where the power of lichens comes in: they are able to dry to a crisp but still remain in a suspended state of living, so that when water becomes available again, they resume life as usual. Few organisms are able to accomplish such a feat, termed desiccation tolerance.

Chiou and Armaleo are trying to understand how lichens manage to survive getting dried and come out the other end with minimal scars. Knowing this could have important implications for our food crops, which cannot survive becoming completely parched. This knowledge is ever more important as climate becomes warmer and more unpredictable in the future. Some farmers may no longer be able to rely on regular seasonal rainfall.

They are using genetic tools to figure out the mechanisms behind the lichen’s desiccation tolerance[. Their first breakthrough came when they discovered that extra DNA sequences present in lichen ribosomal DNA may allow cells to survive extreme desiccation. Now they want to know how this works. They hope that by comparing RNA expression between desiccation tolerant and non-tolerant cells they can identify genes that protect against desiccation damage.  

As with most things, you need money to carry out your plans. Traditionally, scientists obtain money from federal agencies such as the National Science Foundation or the National Institutes of Health, or sometimes from large organizations such as the National Geographic Society, to fund their work. But applying for money involves a heavy layer of bureaucracy and long wait times while the grant is being reviewed (often, grants are only reviewed once a year). But Chiou is in her last semester, so they resorted to crowdfunding their experiment.

This is not the first instance of crowdfunded science in the Biology Department at Duke. In 2014, Fay-Wei Li and Kathleen Pryer crowdfunded the sequencing of the first fern genome, that of tiny Azolla. In fact, it was Pryer who suggested crowdfunding to Armaleo.

Chiou (left) and Armaleo in a video.

Chiou was skeptical that this approach would work. Why would somebody spend their hard-earned money on research entirely unrelated to them? To make their sales pitch, Chiou and Armaleo had to consider the wider impact of the project, rather than the approach taken in traditional grants where the focus is on the ways in which a narrow field is being advanced.

What they were not expecting was that fostering relationships would be important too; they were surprised to find that the biggest source of funding was their friends. Armaleo commented on how “having a long life of relationships with people” really shone through in this time of need — contributions to the fund, however small, “highlight people’s connection with you.” That network of connections paid off: with 18 days left in the allotted time, they had reached their goal.

After their experience, they would recommend crowdfunding as an option for other scientists. Having to create widely understood, engaging explanations of their work, and earning the support and encouragement of friends was a very positive experience.

“It beats writing a grant!” Armaleo said.

Guest Post by Karla Sosa, Biology graduate student


Open Communication is Key to Research in Schools

One of the things that excited me most about coming to Duke was the amount of research being done on campus, from theoretical physics to biological field work or cultural anthropology. I recently had the opportunity to attend a panel about conducting research in schools. As someone who has only ever done biological and chemistry-based lab work, I was eager to learn more about how research is conducted in other disciplines.

Doing research in schools is particularly challenging because it includes so many parties. The research goals must align with the school district’s priorities, collaboration must occur with the teachers, administrators and researchers about the design of the study and feasibility of implementations, and there must be cooperation from the students who are often young children unaware of the research going on.

Ultimately, the core role of schools is to educate children. Thus, in order to conduct research, the team needs to find a way to provide a clear benefit to schools for participation and make sure of protecting instruction time, reducing the burden on teachers.

The main purpose of the panel was to help Duke researchers better understand how to effectively interact and conduct research in schools. This was very well reflected in the four panelists Amy Davis, Cherry Johnson, Michele Woodson, and Holle Williams who each gave short, individual presentations.

Essentially,  the goal of a school is to provide high-quality education to the students. So to conduct research, researchers must find a way to make their goals applicable to the teachers.

Davis, the coordinator of grants, research, and development in Durham Public Schools explained that because of their large minority population, researchers often want to partner with them. Davis explained that researchers should strive to work collaboratively in a way that will yield what the researcher needs but also benefit the school. The focus of the teachers and administrators is not on research and they are not experts in things like research design.

She urged researchers to first reach out to her because she knows which schools would be a viable fit and can help provide the language to talk directly to them. Furthermore, she addressed that researchers sometimes need to have the flexibility to alter the research design when working in schools.

Johnson, the Director of Research and Grant Development in Johnston County Public Schools began by explaining how her district is driven by principles of relationships, relevance, and innovation.

She added that they are  “always interested in collab opportunities between universities and JCPS.”

However, studies that can aid in furthering their priorities, namely innovation, teacher recruitment and social and emotional learning will have a higher likelihood of being conducted successfully.

What makes the county so unique is that they are almost two districts within one.

“We still have notable lines between the haves and have nots,” Johnson added referring to large the socioeconomic differences between the Raleigh commuters and farm families.

To address some of these challenges, JCPS are participating in many partnerships with universities like NC State, UNC and Duke including a study with Dr. Leslie M. Babinski, associate research professor in the Sanford School of Public Policy.

Dr. Babinski conducting research in schools
Dr. Babinski working with students

Ultimately, university research is not a school district’s top priority. However, Woodson added that if the research has the ability to aid the school in accomplishing their goals then it increases the likelihood of success for both parties.

The last speaker was Holle Williams the Director of Main Campus Institutional Review Board at Duke University. Most schools require the approval of Duke’s IRB, which aims to protect the rights and welfare of human research subjects. Williams explained that their goal is to understand the intent of the researcher’s project.

“We want to make sure that what you are doing, what you are contemplating meets the definition of research” Williams stated.

Understanding intent allows then to distinguish research from other kinds of projects where research can help the school but also must contribute to the universal knowledge of a given education based topic.

A big emphasis of the talk was open communication. Both the school representatives and director of IRB highlighted that in order to most efficiently carry out a research project, the researchers should make sure to reach out to both the schools as well as main campus IRB. Through effective communication, strong partnerships can be built between the Duke community and local schools to conduct research that benefits both parties.

Post by Anna Gotskind

Magazine Covers Hew to Stereotypes, But Also Surprise

Data + Women’s Spaces

Media plays a large role in the lives of most people. It’s everywhere. Even if you don’t actively purchase magazines, you are exposed to the covers in daily life. They are at newsstands, in grocery stores, in waiting rooms, online and more. Intrigued by the messages embedded in magazine covers, Nathan Liang (psychology, statistics), Sandra Luksic (philosophy, political science) and Alexis Malone (statistics) sought out to understand how women are represented in media as a part of a research project in the Data+ program.

Data+ is one of the many summer research opportunities at Duke. It’s a 10-week program focused on data science that allows undergraduate students to explore different research topics using data-driven approaches. Students work collaboratively in small interdisciplinary teams and develop skills to marshal, analyze, and visualize data.

The team’s project, titled Women’s Spaces, focused on a primary research question: Which messages are pervasive in women’s and men’s magazines and how do these messages change over time, across magazines, and between different target audiences.

Together, the team analyzed 500+ magazine covers published between January 2010 and June 2018, from Cosmopolitan, Esquire, Essence, Good Housekeeping and Seventeen. They used image analysis, text analysis and sentiment analysis in order to understand how women are represented on the magazine covers.

To conduct image analysis the team used Microsoft Azure Face Detect with Python in order to identify cover models. This software accounted for perceived emotions, age and race. They also noted the race/ethnicity and hair length of the cover models. Their research revealed that excluding Essence, 85 percent of magazine covers were white and had below average body sizes. One specific thing they found was that men had a greater range of emotions while women seemed to always appear happy. Furthermore, there was less emotional variance among minorities and in general, no Asian men. However, they did note that there may have been a software bias in that Microsoft Azure may not have picked up as well on the emotions of minorities.

In order to conduct text analysis, the team had to self-type the text on the magazine covers because oftentimes the text on magazine covers was layered on top of images making it hard for software to detect. This reduced the number of magazines that they were able to analyze because it took up so much time. They then used a Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (tf-idf) algorithm to determine both how often a term occurred on the cover how important a term was. Their results revealed several keywords associated with different magazines. Some of these include sex (Cosmopolitan),  curvy, beauty, and business (Essence), cooking, cleaning, and kitchen (GH), cute (Seventeen), and cars, America, and Barbeque (Esquire)

Tf-idf word cloud for all magazines

Lastly, they conducted a sentiment analysis. Sentiment analysis involved computationally identifying the opinions expressed in the magazine covers to determine their attitude on the topic being displayed. While sentiment libraries exist, there were not any that had magazine/advertising industry-specific sentiments and thus, were not usable for the research. As a result, the team created their own sentiment dictionary with categories like “positive,” “negative,” “sex,” “sell-words,” “appearance,” “home,” “professional,” “male” and “female.”

At the end of the summer, their main takeaway was that magazines tend to reinforce gender norms and stereotypes. The covers also backed up some of the established preconceived notions they had about magazines. However, they also discovered messages of empowerment. Interestingly, these were often connected to beauty as well as consumerism.

In a presentation, the team explained that one of the lessons they took away from the summer was that Data science is not objective, but biases are hard to spot. They noted that throughout the process they made sure to question their methodologies of analyzing data. It was particularly challenging to determine where the biases were coming into play: be it their questions, data sources or even understanding of feminism. Because of the interdisciplinary nature of the project, combining humanities with data science, the team was academically diverse. Luksic stated in the presentation that she, especially, came in skeptical of the idea that technology was assumed to be “objective”.

Luksic added, “It’s one thing to know, on a abstract level, that data science is not objective. It is another thing entirely to try to do or practice data science in a way that minimizes your subjectivities. Ultimately, we hope for a data science that can incorporate subjectivity in a way that emphasizes differences, such as between black-centered feminism and anti-black feminism.”

The discoveries made by the team play into a larger discussion about women’s roles in media and how that influences feminism and empowerment in relation to marketing and how that impacts women’s movements.

Luksic stated, “the versatility of data science allowed us to pursue multiple different paths with different conceptions of feminisms underlying them, which was exciting and empowering.”

By Anna Gotskind

An Indirect Path to Some Extreme Science

Dr. Cynthia Darnell’s path to becoming a postdoctoral researcher in the Amy Schmid Labat Duke University was, in her words, “not straightforward.”

Dr. Cynthia Darnell is a Postdoc at Duke, studying ‘extremophiles.’

At the start of her post-high school career, Darnell had no clue what she wanted to do, so she went to community college for the first two years while she decided. She had anticipated that she was going to go to college as an art major, but had always enjoyed biology.

While at community college she took a couple biology courses. She transferred to another college where she took a course in genetics and according to her, “it blew my mind.” While at the college she took a variety of different biology courses. Her genetics professor’s wife was looking for a lab technician in the microbiology lab she ran. After Darnell worked there for two years, she decided to go to graduate school and had a whole list of places/universities she could attend.

However, after going to a conference in Chicago and meeting her future graduate advisor, Darnell made the decision to go to Iowa for six years of Graduate school. She ended up in the Schmid Lab at Duke University for her “postdoc” after her boss had recommended the lab to her.

Previously, Darnell had done research on the connectedness of genetic pathways in halophilic extremophiles — bacteria that lived in extremely salty conditions. She developed projects to understand the how their genetic network sends and receives signals.

Darnell is continuing that research at Duke while also looking at the effects of different environmental factors on growth and the genetic network using mutant halophilic extremophiles.

Darnell with some plated archaebacteria in her Duke lab

There are generally three different paths Darnell’s day in the lab can take. The first path is a bench day. During a bench day, she will be doing experiments looking at growth curves, microscopes or RNA extracts. The second path is a computational day in which she will do sequencing to look at gene expression. The third option is a writing day in which she spends a majority of her time writing up grants, papers, and applications.

Dr. Darnell wishes to open up her own lab in the future and serve underprivileged students in underserved areas. She wishes to do more research in the area of archaebacteria because of how under researched and underrepresented it is in the scientific community. Dr. Darnell hopes to study more about the signaling networks in archaebacteria in her own lab someday.

She especially wishes to be able to open her lab up to underprivileged students, exposing them to the possibilities of research and graduate programs.

Guest Post by Tejaswi Siripurapu, NCSSM 2019

New Blogger Jeremy Jacobs: What’s in a Name?

Surviving my first snow day at Duke

Let’s start with my name: Jeremy Abraham Jacobs. It’s a surprisingly Biblical one,
a name that draws more from the Judeo-Christian tradition than my
Indian roots. Jeremy, derived from the prophet Jeremiah and the depths of my mother’s imagination. Abraham, both the name of my father’s father and the patriarch of Judaism. And Jacobs, the latest Americanization of my family name Yakob, Chacko, then Jacob.

At the heart of my name is language, the offspring of a million-year synthesis of firing neurons, geography, and culture. I too grew up a child of intersection, living a blend of the Indian tradition my parents brought over with them and the rich culture of the Deep South that’s flavored ever moment of my life.

I’m a freshman here at Duke, with all the uncertainties—and possibilities—of an undeclared major. But my passion lies in the crossroads that has defined my life. I want to understand the inseparable intertwining of linguistics and neuroscience. And communication enthralls me, from the individual cells that make up the tongue to the Spanish pluperfect subjunctive.

Who knows if, after four years, organic chemistry will have knocked me off the pre-med track, or if English will still hold my interest as tightly as it does today? But for now, at least, mysteries like the power of a name still keep me invested in the intricate interplay of science and language.

Move-in day featuring an injured arm!

What cascading forces of nature and nurture brought my mother to a small hospital in Tupelo, Mississippi, where I came into the world kickin’ and screaming’ one hot July morning? Was there some memory burned into her hippocampus that caused her to choose the name “Jeremy” in a sea of Chad’s, Luke’s, or Matt’s? And how different would my life have been if my name were not Jeremy Abraham Jacobs but rather Aakash Bola, or Harley Covington Pike III?

It took generations of missteps, chance encounters, and biological improbabilities for this name to fall to me, for this name to be mine. Perhaps one day I’ll understand every aspect of my unlikely existence, every factor that led to the genetically unique organism currently typing up this article. More likely, though, is that I’ll spend my life exploring the unknown, learning more about my own place in the mechanisms of the world.

But I know, at least, that intersection follows me, even here at the Duke Research Blog. I’m thrilled to infuse my own mix of science, writing, and culture into each article I produce, so I can ignite the passions of others students of science who seek their own common ground.

Post by Jeremy Jacobs

Math on the Basketball Court

Boston Celtics data analyst David Sparks, Ph.D, really knew his audience Thursday, November 8, when he gave a presentation centered around the two most important themes at Duke: basketball and academics. He gave the crowd hope that you don’t have to be a Marvin Bagley III to make a career out of basketball — in fact, you don’t have to be an athlete at all; you can be a mathematician.

David Sparks (photo from Duke Political Science)

Sparks loves basketball, and he spends every day watching games and practices for his job. What career fits this description, you might ask? After graduating from Duke in 2012 with a Ph.D. in Political Science, Sparks went to work for the Boston Celtics, as the Director of Basketball Analytics. His job entails analyzing basketball data and building statistical models to ensure that the team will win.

The most important statistic when looking at basketball data is offensive / defensive efficiency, Sparks told the audience gathered for the “Data Dialogue” series hosted by the Information Initiative at Duke. Offensive efficiency translates to the number of points per possession while defensive efficiency measures how poorly the team forced the other offense to perform. These are measured with four factors: effective field goal percentage (shots made/ shots taken), turnover rate, successful rebound percentage, and foul rate. By looking at these four factors for both offensive and defensive efficiency, Sparks can figure out which of these areas are lacking, and share with the coach where there is room for improvement. “We all agree that we want to win, and the way you win is through efficiency,” Sparks said.

Since there is not a lot of room for improvement in the short windows between games during the regular season, a large component of Sparks’ job involves informing the draft and how the team should run practices during preseason.

David Sparks wins over his audience by showing Duke basketball clips to illustrate a point. Sparks spoke as part of the “Data Dialogue” series hosted by the Information Initiative at Duke.

Data collection these days is done by computer software. Synergy Sports Technology, the dominant data provider in professional basketball, has installed cameras in all 29 NBA arenas. These cameras are constantly watching and coding plays during games, tracking the locations of each player and the movements of the ball. They can analyze the amount of times the ball was touched and determine how long it was possessed each time, or recognize screens and calculate the height at which rebounds are grabbed. This software has revolutionized basketball analytics, because the implication of computer coding is that data scientists like Sparks can go back and look for new things later.

The room leaned in eagerly as Sparks finished his presentation, intrigued by the profession that is interdisciplinary at its core — an unlikely combination of sports and applied math. If math explains basketball, maybe we can all find a way to connect our random passions in the professional sphere.

Meet New Blogger Anne Littlewood – Working on Biology and Puppies

My name is Anne Littlewood and I am a sophomore here at Duke. I grew up in San Francisco, spent a brief moment living on the island of Kauai, and finished high school in Pebble Beach, California. I am studying the intersection of biology and psychology here at Duke, in an effort to understand how biological mechanisms inform our interactions with the environment.

Snuggles in Puppy Kindergarten!

Outside the classroom, I can be found frequenting Duke’s beloved Puppy Kindergarten, where I work as a volunteer. Recently, I’ve become an Associate Editor for Duke’s literary magazine, The Archive. I love writing creatively, and it’s been so great to find a community of my literature- loving peers. I’m also participating in a Bass Connections project this year, and working on a team to evaluate the outcomes of different conservation interventions through the synthesis of an evidence gap map for World Wildlife fund.

Me and Cricket on Carmel Beach

Most of all I love to spend time outdoors, whether it’s exploring the mountains of North Carolina on a backpacking trip, lying in my hammock at Eno Quarry, or walking through the gardens each day on my way to class. I’m a huge animal lover, and I’m way too obsessed with my dog, a 12-pound cavalier King Charles spaniel named Cricket.

I’ve always been into science, but I think I really fell in love with Biology my freshman year of high school, when my all time favorite teacher, Mr. Cinti helped me extract my DNA one afternoon, just for fun. Writing is my passion, and I’m excited to explore my skills in a variety of genres this year. This blog is my first ever attempt at journalism/ science writing, and I’m excited to give it a try!

Coding: A Piece of Cake

Image result for cake

Imagine a cake, your favorite cake. Has your interest been piqued?

“Start with Cake” has proved an effective teaching strategy for Mine Cetinkaya-Rundel in her introduction-level statistics classes. In her talk “Teaching Computing via Visualization,” she lays out her classroom approaches to helping students maintain an interest in coding despite its difficulty. Just like a cooking class, a taste of the final product can motivate students to master the process. Cetinkaya-Rundel, therefore, believes that instead of having students begin with the flour and sugar and milk, they should dive right into the sweet frosting. While bringing cake to the first day of class has a great success rate for increasing a class’s attention span (they’ll sugar crash in their next classes, no worries), what this statistics professor actually refers to is showing the final visualizations. By giving students large amounts of pre-written code and only one or two steps to complete during the first few class periods, they can immediately recognize coding’s potential. The possibilities become exciting and capture their attention so that fewer students attempt to vanish with the magic of drop/add period. For the student unsure about coding, immediately writing their own code can seem overwhelming and steal the joy of creating.

Example of a visualization Cetinkaya-Rundel uses in her classes

To accommodate students with less background in coding, Cetinkaya-Rundel believes that skipping the baby steps proves a better approach than slowing the pace. By jumping straight into larger projects, students can spend more time wrestling their code and discovering the best strategies rather than memorizing the definition of a histogram. The idea is to give the students everything on day one, and then slowly remove the pre-written coding until they are writing on their own. The traditional classroom approach involves teaching students line-by-line until they have enough to create the desired visualizations. While Cetinkaya-Rundel admits that her style may not suit every individual and creating the assignments does require more time, she stands by her eat-dessert-first perspective on teaching. Another way she helps students maintain their original curiosity is by cherishing day one through pre-installed packages which allow students to start playing with visualizations and altering code right away.

Not only does Cetinkaya-Rundel give mouth-watering cakes as the end results for her students but she also sometimes shows them burnt and crumbling desserts. “People like to critique,” she explains as she lays out how to motivate students to begin writing original code. When she gives her students a sloppy graph and tells them to fix it, they are more likely to find creative solutions and explore how to make the graph most appealing to them. As the scaffolding falls away and students begin diverging from the style guides, Cetinkaya-Rundel has found that they have a greater understanding of and passion for coding. A spoonful of sugar really does help the medicine go down.  

    Post by Lydia Goff

Creating a Gender Inclusive Campus: Reflecting on “Becoming Johanna”

Following Duke’s Oct. 4 screening of the 2016 documentary, “Becoming Johanna,” students, faculty, staff and community members in the audience were eager to ask questions of the panel, which included the film’s director/producer, Jonathan Skurnik, and even the film’s transgender subject, Johanna Clearwater herself.

Johanna Clearwater pictured with the film’s director/producer Jonathan Skurnik

The film showcases the heart-wrenching and empowering story of a latina transgender teenager growing up in Los Angeles. After beginning her transition at age 16, Johanna faced the rejection of her mother and intense opposition from school authorities. Soon after, she was abandoned by her family and entered the foster care system, where she was lucky to find a much more supportive family environment. After changing schools, she connected on a personal level with her school principal, Deb, who helped Johanna find a community where she felt understood and supported. This success story of self-advocacy and resilience in the face of abandonment and exclusion highlights the daily struggles of many transgender teenagers. For these individuals, becoming comfortable in their own skin is the end of a long and demanding journey, often made even more difficult by the ignorance and cruelty of society. Finding and following the path to authentic expression takes a huge amount of courage, as this route is often layered with adversity.

Before the screening, Duke clinical social worker Kristin Russel put the film in context for the audience, inviting our reflection with her words: “A well told story… is really what can help us bridge the unfortunate distance that can remain uncrossed and misunderstood if such stories are silenced.” Chief Diversity Officer for the School of Medicine Judy Seidenstein then introduced the film and facilitated the panel discussion.

After the film, the audience was invited to join the conversation. Questions came from every demographic of the crowd, and provided a nice sampling of opinions. Many audience members pointed out how important these conversations are, especially in a conservative state like North Carolina that has so recently struggled with the protection of LGBTQ rights with last year’s ‘Bathroom Bill.’ Specifically, the questions and comments from hospital staff and faculty from the School of Medicine gave a nice insight into the direction of support on campus for sexual and gender diversity.

Audience members reflect on the film with those nearby

Cheryl Brewer, the Associate Vice President of Nursing, told the room about the inclusion work that she is leading in the School of Nursing. They have developed a new core curriculum to promote acceptance and support of gender and sexual diversity through situational trainings. She noted that there have been some people that struggle with implicit biases more than others, but that the program has been a success overall.

Russell spoke briefly about her work with transgender and gender diverse youth in the clinical setting and emphasized the importance of having family support. Legally and psychologically, maintaining family involvement and support of patients is essential for treatment.

Events like this one reflect ongoing efforts to support sexual and gender diversity within and beyond Duke, by promoting conversation and increasing empathy through storytelling. Duke is well on the way to becoming a much more inclusive community, where everyone can feel a sense of belonging.

Guest post by Anne Littlewood

Meet New Blogger Brian Du

Brian survives his week in the desert.

Hi! My name is Brian Du, and I’m a sophomore from Texas. I’m a pre-med majoring in computer science. I like vacations, hiking, and hiking on vacation. Besides these hobbies, I also love learning about science and hearing a good story. These latter two are exactly why I’m excited to be writing for the Duke Research Blog.

My first exposure to science happened in third grade because my goldfish kept getting sick and dying. This made me sad and I became invested in making them well again. I would measure pH levels regularly with my dad and keep notes on the fishes’ health. Eventually the process turned into a science fair project. I remember I loved presenting because I got to point out to the judges the ‘after’ pictures of my fish, which showed them alive, healthy, and happy (I think? it’s hard to tell with fish).

One happy fish!
Source: Reddit

My fish and I go way back.

After that third-grade experiment, I kept doing science projects — almost year after year actually — since I love the research process. From framing the right questions and setting up the experiment, to running the trials and writing up and sharing my work, my enthusiasm grew with each step. Come competition day, I noticed that in interviews that went well, my excitement was contagious, so that judges grew more eager too as they listened. And so I understood: a huge part to science is communication. Science, like food or a good story, is meant to be shared with others. The scientist is a storyteller, adjusting his presentation to captivate different audiences. With judges, I spoke jargon, but during public exhibition, where I chatted with anyone who came up to me, I got creative when asked about my research. Analogies helped me link strange concepts to everyday objects and experiences. An important protein channel became a pipe, and its inhibitor molecule a rock which would clog the pipe to make it unusable.

protein channel “pipe”
edited from CThompson02

Now that I’m at Duke, there’s so many stories to tell of the rich variety of research being done right on campus! I’ve written a few articles for the Chronicle covering some of the new medicine or proteins Duke professors have been involved in developing. As I keep an ear out for more stories, I hope to share a few of them in my upcoming posts, because I know they’ll be exciting!

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