Duke Research Blog

Following the people and events that make up the research community at Duke.

Category: Medicine (Page 1 of 13)

How A Zebrafish’s Squiggly Cartilage Transforms into a Strong Spine

A column of green cartilage cells divides into an alternating pattern of green cartilage and red vertebra

Our spines begin as a flexible column called the notochord. Over time, cells on the notochord surface divide into alternating segments that go on to form cartilage and vertebrae.

In the womb, our strong spines start as nothing more than a rope of rubbery tissue. As our bodies develop, this flexible cord, called the notochord, morphs into a column of bone and cartilage sturdy enough to hold up our heavy upper bodies.

Graduate student Susan Wopat and her colleagues in Michel Bagnat’s lab at Duke are studying the notochords of the humble zebrafish to learn how this cartilage-like rope grows into a mature spine.

In a new paper, they detail the cellular messaging that directs this transformation.

It all comes down to Notch receptors on the notochord surface, they found. Notch receptors are a special type of protein that sits astride cell membranes. When two cells touch, these Notch receptors link up, forming channels that allow messages to rapidly travel between large groups of cells.

Notch receptors divide the outer notochord cells into two alternating groups – one group is told to grow into bone, while the other is told to grow into cartilage. Over time, bone starts to form on the surface of the notochord and works its way inward, eventually forming mature vertebrae.

X-ray images of four zebrafish spines

Meddling with cellular signaling on the notochord surface caused zebrafish spines to develop deformities. The first and third image show healthy spines, and the second and fourth image show deformed spines.

When the team tinkered with the Notch signaling on the surface cells, they found that the spinal vertebrae came out deformed – too big, too small, or the wrong shape.

“These results demonstrate that the notochord plays a critical role in guiding spine development,” Wopat said. “Further investigation into these findings may help us better understand the origin of spinal defects in humans.”

Spine patterning is guided by segmentation of the notochord sheath,” Susan Wopat, Jennifer Bagwell, Kaelyn D. Sumigray, Amy L. Dickson, Leonie F. Huitema, Kenneth D. Poss, Stefan Schulte-Merker, Michel Bagnat. Cell, February 20, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.01.084

Post by Kara Manke

Growing “Mini Brains” To Understand Zika’s Effects

You probably remember what the Zika virus is because of the outbreak in 2015 that made global headlines.

microcephaly illustration

An infant with microcephaly (left) with a reduced head circumference, as compared to an infant born with a regular head circumference (right) Picture credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=63278345

The serious nature of the virus was apparent when hundreds of infants across South America were born with microcephaly – a condition characterized by a very small head circumference as a result of abnormally slow brain growth.

The sudden outbreak of Zika in South America led to a panic of the possibility of spread into the United States as well as beyond – and thus, research into learning more about the disease mechanisms of Zika expanded. However, one of the problems in studying a disease like Zika is the difficulty of modeling a complex organ like the developing brain.

Until now, the current way to model the brain was with a brain organoid – a brain grown in a lab. Organoid structures attempt to mimic whole developing organs – however, current brain organoid technology required the use of a large spinning bioreactor to facilitate nutrient and oxygen absorption to mimic the function of the vascular system in our brains. Large spinning bioreactors are expensive to run and bulky—they require large volumes of expensive media that mimic brain fluid. The size and cost has meant that only a few organoids can be grown and studied at once.

Guo-li Ming, University of Pennsylvania

Dr. Guo-li Ming, a professor of neuroscience from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, set out to work on finding a way to solve this problem. She came down to Duke University last week to give a talk on her findings.  As she spoke, I could feel the minds of the audience firmly captivated by her words. It was truly fascinating stuff – Ming was actually growing brains in the lab!

The work began by finding a way to take the large spinning reactor that the existing brain organoid required and make it smaller. Three clever high school students working in her lab used a 3D printer and a small motor that involved spinning 12 tiny interconnected paddles within 12 small cell culture wells. Each of the wells contain a paddle that is spun by one gear.  All of the individual gears connect to a continually rotating central gear driven by a motor.

Bioreactor schematic

The Spin bioreactor. Source: http://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674(16)30467-6

After many optimizations, the final design was called SpinW,  which ultimately required a mere 2 ml of media per well, resulting in a net 50-fold reduction in media consumption, as well as dramatically reduced incubator space. The large number of wells, combined with dramatically reduced cost of the apparatus and media consumption, allowed for optimal conditions to run multiple test scenarios with ease – essentially meaning that 12 “mini brains” could be tested at the same time.

The design of SpinW costed a mere $400, while the commercial design costs over $2,000, with the added burden of consuming 50 times more media. The success of the design only serves to prove that age doesn’t matter when it comes to great ideas!

A brain organoid infected with Zika virus. ZIKV envelope protein is shown in green; neural progenitor cells marked by SOX2 are shown in red; neurons marked by CTIP2 are shown in blue.
CREDIT: Xuyu Qian/Johns Hopkins University

Dr. Ming and her team used the apparatus to model the Zika virus’s impact on the brain.

The findings indicate that Zika works by killing off neural stem cells, as well as causing a thinning of key brain structures. One of the observations was that, by day 18 of Zika infection of a brain organoid, there was an overall decrease in size, which points to the link of Zika causing microcephaly. The Zika infection of early-stage organoids corresponded to the first trimester of human fetal development.

The brain is the most complex organ in the body, and one of the least understood. The work Dr. Ming and her team has done goes a long way towards helping us understand the way the human brain develops and works, as well modeling its reaction to things like viruses. It was a pleasure and honor to hear Dr. Ming talk to us about her work –I am eager to hear about further developments in this field!

Post by Thabit Pulak

Can Science Explain Everything? An Exploration of Faith

The Veritas Forum, Feb. 1 in Penn Pavilion

I found out about this year’s Veritas Forum an hour before it started — a friend, who two years ago helped me explore Christianity (I grew up non-religious and was curious), mentioned it when we ran into each other at the Brodhead Center.

So, to avoid my academic responsibilities, I instead listened to Duke physics professor Ronen Plesser, a non-practicing Jew, Troy Van Voorhis, a Christian who teaches chemistry at MIT, and moderator Ehsan Samei, a professor of radiology and biomedical engineering at Duke. They discussed the God Hypothesis and how it fit in with their views as hard scientists.

Ehsan Samei

As someone who has relied on the scientific method instead of an omniscient, higher power to understand the natural world, I found it amazing how the speakers used relatable examples to demonstrate their belief that humans cannot explain everything. They started answering the classic question “Why is the sky blue?,” using more and more complex chemistry and physics as answers only led to more questions.

At some point, science-based explanations about how and why molecules move the way they do and where they come from didn’t suffice — at some point, it just seems like something, or someone, is responsible for the unexplainable.

Troy Van Voorhis of MIT

Something that Van Voorhis said particularly stuck in my mind. Reproducibility and objectivity form the “bedrock of science,” but are also it’s “grand limitations.” They are essential to corroborating the results of a scientific study or experiment, but can they really confirm something as scientific truth? When does reproducibility adequately overcome variation in data, and can something be defined as truly objective?

So, I sat there in the audience, thinking about alternatives to explaining morals, ethics, and the feeling of being human since, to paraphrase Plesser, science just doesn’t cut it in these cases. He elaborated on faith after branching off Van Voorhis’ point of view. Plesser’s explanation made the overlap of science and religion become more and more prominent. As someone who also does not practice a religion, I felt that his comparison of faith in science and faith in religion comforting.

Ronan Plesser

Even though I still struggle to fully accept Christ, I was aware of the similarities of the path to scientific and spiritual enlightenment. In science, incessant questioning of our surroundings is necessary to understand the Truths of our world (“otherwise we wouldn’t be publishing papers and we would be out of our jobs!”), as are the calls to God to come down and help people improve themselves. It is impossible, then, to avoid faith entirely since being human inherently involves belief in some sort of system.

I was wowed by the connections that the three men were making between the seemingly divergent areas. I was even more astonished, though, by their emphasis on humility. They exemplified the need for understanding and patience when describing scientific theories and religious ideologies. To be humble is to accept that people have differences and to acknowledge these differences is the only way to reduce conflicts between religion and science.

Post by Stella Wang

Hospital Music ‘A Reminder That There’s Life’

When William Dawson took over the Performing Arts program at Duke Hospital, he became the first full-time staff Musician in Residence and Semans/Byrd Performing Arts Coordinator. As a teacher, band director and international performer, Dawson understood the effect music could have on one’s mood and emotions. Still, he had a challenging task ahead of him – Dawson had to prove that music could make an impact in a hospital setting.

In the spring of 2014, as part of the larger Arts & Health program at Duke Hospital, the department administered a survey. Staff had the opportunity to reflect on what programs had improved their hospital experience. As it turned out, live music was one of the top patient satisfiers. Armed with the information, Arts & Health chose to expand the Performing Arts program.

The Performing Arts program differs from music therapy, where board certified professionals work one-on-one or in small groups to achieve a personalized goal. Instead, it is composed of Artists in Residence, Performing Arts Volunteers and Hospital Concerts. Throughout the week, professional musicians are assigned to hospital units to visit patients at the bedside. The professional musicians play for relaxation, company, religious services, and special events including birthdays, weddings, anniversaries and the final moments of life.

Performing Arts Volunteers are students and community members who perform in hospital lobbies and concourses. To assess the musicians’ audience, Dawson used a handheld tally counter and noted that on average, 600-800 people pass through the hospital’s heavily trafficked areas per hour. The instrumental music provides an opportunity for a shared connection, he said.

“It’s like a magic trick,” Dawson said. “I can’t tell you how many times I’ve been playing there piano and a person has cried. It’s beautiful – it’s a reminder that there’s life.”

Hospital Concerts are offered periodically by the Artists in Residence and professional organizations. Recognizing the diversity of the hospital staff and patients, Dawson ensures that performers reflect a variety of backgrounds and can cater to a wide audience.

Since becoming coordinator, Dawson has been statistically analyzing the growth of the program, because potential donors and current financial backers would like to see measurable impact. Dawson has the figures: In the 2016-2017 fiscal year, the number of bedside requests increased by 282 percent, from 109 to 416. To match demand, the number of Performing Arts Volunteers increased by 120 percent and 1,156 hours of live music were performed.

In the future, Dawson looks forward to continued program expansion. Additional funding would also enable the Uke in Duke program, a hospital in-patient instructional ukulele program, to expand and serve more patients. With Dawson’s leadership and a dedicated team of professional musicians and volunteers, the Performing Arts program has an undeniable impact.

Post by Ameya Sanyal

MyD88: Villain of Allergies and Asthma

Even if you don’t have allergies yourself, I guarantee you can list at least three people you know who have allergies. Asthma, a respiratory disorder commonly associated with allergies, afflicts over 300 million individuals worldwide.

Seddon Y. Thomas, PhD of the NIEHS

Seddon Y. Thomas, PhD of the NIEHS

Seddon Y. Thomas who works at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences has been exploring how sensitization to allergens occurs. The work, which she described at a recent  session of the Immunology Seminar Series, specifically focuses on the relationship between sensitization and the adaptor molecule MyD88.

MyD88 transfers signals between some of the proteins and receptors that are involved in immune responses to foreign invaders. Since allergies entail inflammation caused by an immune response, Thomas recognized that MyD88 played a role in the immune system’s sensitization to inhaled allergens.

Her research aims to discover how MyD88 alters conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) which are innate immune cells that drive allergic inflammation. MyD88 signaling in cDCs sometimes preserves open chromatin — the availability of DNA for rapid replication — which allows gene changes to happen quickly and in turn causes allergic sensitization. Open chromatin regions permit the DNA manipulation that can lead to allergies and asthma. 

Florescence microscopy image of mouse dendritic cells with mRNA-loaded blood cells.

To conduct her experiments, Thomas examines what happens in mice when she deletes MyD88 from lung epithelial cells and from antigen-presenting cells. Lung epithelial cells form a protective tissue where inhaled air meets the lung and protects from foreign invaders. But sometimes it takes its job a little too seriously and reacts strongly to allergens.

Similarly, antigen-presenting cells are involved in the immune system’s mission to protect the body, but can become confused about who the enemy is. When the signaling adaptor MyD88 is removed from lung epithelial cells, the number of eosinophils, inflammatory white blood cells, decreases. When it is removed from antigen-presenting cells, another type of white blood cell, neutrophils, also decreases.

Thomas said this shows that MyD88 is necessary for the inflammation in the lungs that causes asthma and allergies.

In her future research, Thomas wishes to explore dendritic cell gene expression, the molecular pathways controlling gene expression, and how specific types of lung epithelial cells adjust immune responses. Because MyD88 plays a role in the genetic changes, it makes sense to continue research on the genetic side.    

Post by Lydia Goff            

Beatriz Morris: Providing Pediatric Care in Two Languages

“‘Betty, education is the most important thing,” her father said. “We lost our home, our land, our cars, our farm, everything we have ever owned. But what I have in my head, no one can take away from me.’”

Six-year-old Beatriz glanced back up at her father and then towards the new life ahead of her. She would remember this moment in all of her years to come.

Beatriz Morris MD

Beatriz Morris, MD, practices pediatric medicine in English and Spanish at Duke Children’s Primary Care near the Southpoint Mall.

Beatriz and her family immigrated to the United States from Cuba seeking religious freedom and an escape from communism with nothing more than the clothes on their backs. Beatriz’s father instilled a lesson in her that day which she now sees as a life philosophy. She prioritizes learning, for it is the one thing no one else has power over.

Learning English at the age of six was not a hard task for Beatriz, and she is still bilingual. Today, she is Dr. Beatriz Morris, practicing pediatric medicine at Duke Children’s Primary Care near the Southpoint Mall. She completed her residency at Emory University and  has been in practice for over 20 years, but never imagined she would be walking the path that she is today.

“I never thought I would be a pediatrician. It was not on my list, it was not anything to me,” said Dr. Morris. She uses a proverb to remind us to never say never. “Never say you’re not going to be drinking from this water because you will be drinking gallons.”

Dr. Morris went to undergraduate school intending to pursue art, with a specific career goal in mind – to illustrate medical textbooks. To meet the requirements for a medical illustration major in graduate school, she ended up receiving enough credits in both art and science to double major for her bachelor’s degree. But in applying to illustration school, she never could have predicted what happened next.

“I went to medical school because I did not get into art school,” Dr. Morris explained. “Eventually I did an internship year at a rotation after medical school, doing a little bit of everything. The good thing was that I started in pediatrics.”

From there on out, Dr. Morris never looked back. She has been practicing in pediatrics for over twenty years, embracing both her Hispanic and American heritages. Speaking both Spanish and English allows Dr. Morris to make her patients comfortable by not only knowing their languages, but also having a deep understanding of both cultures.

Dr. Morris explained how that something seemingly simple, such as the phrasing of questions, can determine a patient’s comfort level. For example, in American culture, it is polite of the doctor to ask permission of the patient before beginning the consultation, such as saying ‘Do you mind if we talk about your weight?’

In Hispanic culture, this verbiage would make the doctor appear unknowledgeable to the patient. The patient is more trusting of the doctor through confidence, by saying something like ‘Let me tell you what you need to do about your weight.’

“A lot of times people feel more comfortable speaking in their own language,” she said. “There are colloquialisms of phrases, things like that, that make talking in their native language a lot easier for them.”

Dr. Morris wakes up every day excited to do her job. She reflected on the moment when she knew that pediatrics was the specialty she was meant to work in. On her internship rotation, Dr. Morris spoke to a nurse, who then told her that she would make a great pediatrician.

“That moment was when I started thinking that pediatrics might be a calling for me. This might be something that I did not think of, but it might be my purpose in life. This career has been the best choice I have made.”

Her advice to those looking for a lifelong fulfilling career is best described by how you feel waking up in the morning. Is waking up to go to work dreadful, or are you opening your eyes happy, knowing that you have the privilege to do what you love for another day?

“Don’t do something because it will be easy, for money, or because your parents tell you to,” she advised. “Do something because it is in your heart. If they close the door on you, open the window,” Dr. Morris said.

Samantha GonskiGuest Post by Samantha Gonski, a senior at North Carolina School of Science and Math

David Carlson: Engineering and Machine Learning for Better Medicine

How can we even begin to understand the human brain?  Can we predict the way people will respond to stress by looking at their brains?  Is it possible, even, to predict depression based on observations of the brain?

These answers will have to come from sets of data, too big for human minds to work with on our own. We need mechanical minds for this task.

Machine learning algorithms can analyze this data much faster than a human could, finding patterns in the data that could take a team of researchers far longer to discover. It’s just like how we can travel so much faster by car or by plane than we could ever walk without the help of technology.

David Carlson Duke

David Carlson in his Duke office.

I had the opportunity to speak to David Carlson, an assistant professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering with a dual appointment at the Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics at Duke University.  Through machine learning algorithms, Carlson is connecting researchers across campus, from doctors to statisticians to engineers, creating a truly interdisciplinary research environment around these tools.

Carlson specializes in explainable machine learning: algorithms with inner workings comprehensible by humans. Most deep machine learning today exists in a “black box” — the decisions made by the algorithm are hidden behind layers of reasoning that give it incredible predictive power but make it hard for researchers to understand the “why” and the “how” behind the results. The transparent algorithms used by Carlson offer a way to capture some of the predictive power of machine learning without sacrificing our understanding of what they’re doing.

In his most recent research, Carlson collaborated with Dr. Kafui Dzirasa, associate professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences and assistant professor in neurobiology and neurosurgery, on the effects of stress on the brains of mice, trying to understand the underlying causes of depression.

“What’s happening in neuroscience is the amount of data we’re sorting through is growing rapidly, and it’s really beginning to outstrip our ability to use classical tools,” Carlson says. “A lot of these classical tools made a lot more sense when you had these small data sets, but now we’re talking about this canonically overused word, Big Data”

With machine learning algorithms, it’s easier than ever to find trends in these huge sets of data.  In his most recent study, Carlson and his fellow researchers could find patterns tied to stress and even to how susceptible a mouse was to depression. By continuing this project and looking at new ways to investigate the brain and check their results, Carlson hopes to help improve treatments for depression in the future.

In addition to his ongoing research into depression, Carlson has brought machine learning to a number of other collaborations with the medical center, including research into autism and patient care for diabetes. When there’s too much data for the old ways of data analysis, machine learning can step in, and Carlson sees potential in harnessing this growing technology to improve health and care in the medical field.

“What’s incredibly exciting is the opportunities at the intersection of engineering and medicine,” he said. “I think there’s a lot of opportunities to combine what’s happening in the engineering school and also what’s happening at the medical center to try to create ways of better treating people and coming up with better ways for making people healthier.”

Guest Post by Thomas Yang, a junior at North Carolina School of Math and Science.

Leonor Corsino: Research and Care Toward Alleviating Diabetes

Dr. Leonor Corsino works to relieve the prevalent issues regarding diabetes and obesity. An endocrinologist and professor at the Duke School of Medicine, her passions lie in understanding the struggles that diabetics face through comprehensive patient care and communication.

Leonor Corsino

Her interests in endocrinology began at a young age. She grew up watching her father and many other members of her family challenged with balancing a normal life alongside diabetes. When she progressed to medical school, she was fascinated by the workings of the hormonal system, one of the most neatly regulated of all the biological systems.

“When it works in harmony, everything is perfect, but when something goes off, it affects many other organs,” she says.

Corsino believes that patient-provider communication is the most important thing for the makings of a good endocrinologist. As the Associate Director for Masters in Biomedical Sciences, she aims to teach students pursuing a career as a healthcare professional to be empathetic. “[A student] can be the smartest person in world, but if [they] don’t know how to communicate with the patient, their ability to provide care gets compromised.”

Another factor that plays a role in providing good patient care is the amount of time available to treat each person, according to Corsino. Although Corsino always aspires to treat her patients to the best of her abilities, occasionally, the limited time she has with each individual can impose difficulties with empathizing and treating patients. However, many regular patients don’t mind when their appointments are delayed because they know that they will receive better care when they are able to get her undivided attention.

Beyond her clinical expertise, Corsino’s research focuses on similar issues. Through her research, she intends to improve the healthcare of minorities in the country, as they are the groups that are most affected by diabetes. In the past 11 years, she has introduced interventions to improve and maintain weight loss and worked with pharmaceutical companies to look at potential drugs to treat diabetes. She intends to answer the questions “How do we motivate people to exercise? What is the reason some people struggle with diabetes and other people don’t?”

Corsino has found that biological factors play an equal role to environmental factors in the risk of getting diabetes. Sometimes, even if a patient strictly adheres to the prescribed treatment, they still don’t see the same results and progress as others do. This distinction can be attributed to things like differences in fat distribution and insulin resistance.

In her work, Dr. Corsino tries to alleviate the stress and difficulties that those with diabetes and obesity encounter. As a doctor and professor, she inspires others to pursue a career in public health and provide healthcare to those who need it.

Sindhu PolavaramGuest Post by Sindhu Polavaram, a senior at North Carolina School of Science and Math

Anita Layton: A Model of STEM Versatility

Using mathematics to model the kidney and its biological systems is a field of study located at the intersection of two disciplines.

Anita Layton is a math professor at Duke. (Photo by Chris Hildreth, Duke Photography)

But for Duke’s Anita Layton, PhD, the Robert R. and Katherine B. Penn Professor of Mathematics and a professor of biomedical engineering, that just adds to the fun of it.

Growing up, with her father as the head of mathematics at her school, she was always told she was going to be a mathematician just like him. So she knew that was the last thing she wanted to do.

When Layton arrived as an undergraduate at Duke, she began a major in physics, but she seemed rather cursed when it came to getting correct results from her experiments. She settled for a BA in physics, but her academic journey was far from over. She had also taken a computer science course at Duke and fallen in love with it. If an experiment went wrong “things didn’t smell or blow up” and you could fix your mistake and move on, she said.

While pursuing her PhD in computer science at the University of Toronto, Layton was performing very math-oriented computer science, working with and analyzing numbers. However, it would be a while before biology entered the mix

While she was never good at dissections, she told me she was always good at understanding things that ‘flow’ and she came to the realization that blood is something that flows. She thought, “Hey, I can do that.

Anita Layton, Duke

Anita Layton, Ph.D.

Layton began creating programs that could solve the equations that model blood flow quickly, using her background in computer science. She then started learning about physiology, focusing on the renal system, and making models

It was a journey that took her to many different places, with pit stops and U-turns throughout many different fields. Had Layton stuck with just physics or computer science or math, she never would have ventured out and found this field that she is an expert in now.

It’s her interest in many different fields that has set Layton apart from many other people in the STEM field. In learning a wide variety of things, she has gotten better at computer science, mathematics, biology, physics, and more

When asked about what advice she would give her younger self, or any young person going into college, it would be to do just that: “Learn more things that you’re not good at.” She encouraged just taking a chemistry or biology class once in a while, or a philosophy course that makes you think in ways that you don’t normally. It’s often in those classes that you unearth things that can truly set your life in a completely different direction, Layton said, and she’s living proof of that.

Cecilia Poston, NCSSM

Cecilia Poston

Guest Post by Cecilia Poston, a senior at North Carolina School of Science and Math

Exercise is Good for Your Head and Might Fight Alzheimer’s

Recent studies have confirmed that exercising is just about the best thing you can do for your brain health.

Dan Blazer, MD is a psychiatrist who studies aging.

On Dec. 1 during the DIBS event, Exercise and the Brain, Duke psychiatrist Dan Blazer reported findings about the relationship between physical activity and brain health. After lots of research, study groups at the National Academy of Medicine  concluded that their number one recommendation to those experiencing “cognitive aging” is exercise.

Processing speed, memory, and reasoning decline over time in every one of us. But thankfully, simple things like riding a bike or playing pick up basketball can help keep our minds fresh and at their best possible level.

One cool thing a committee conducting the research did to advertise their findings was create keychains saying “take your brain for a walk.” There’s a little image of a brain with legs walking. They wanted to get the word out that physical activity has another benefit than just staying in shape — it can also support your cognitive health.

However, the committees are having a hard time motivating people to exercise in the first place. Even after hearing their findings, it’s not like people everywhere are suddenly going to get off their couches and hit the gym. A world with healthier people — both physically and mentally — sounds nice, but getting there is much more than a matter of publishing these studies.

And, as always, too much of a good thing can make it harmful. While there does seem to appear a potential “biological gradient,” where greater physical activity correlated with better outcomes, you can’t just run a marathon every day of the week and then ~boom~ aging hardly affects your brain anymore. You don’t want to do that to yourself. Just get a healthy amount of exercise and you’ll be keeping your brain young and smart.

One of the best parts about why exercising is so great for you and your brain is because it helps you sleep (and we all know how important sleep is). If you ever have trouble going to bed or are having disrupted sleeps, physical activity could be your savior. It’s a much healthier option for your brain than taking stuff like melatonin, and you’ll get fit in the process.

Regarding exercising and Alzheimer’s, a disease where vital mental functions deteriorate, studies have unfortunately been insufficient to conclude anything. But if getting Alzheimer’s is your worst fear, I’m sure staying active can’t hurt as a preventative. More research on this topic is being conducted as we speak.

When is the best time to start exercising, in order to reap the maximum cognitive benefits, you ask? Well, the sooner the better. As Blazer said, “exercising helps in maintaining or improving cognitive function in later life,” so you better get on that. Go outside and get moving!

Will Sheehan      Post by Will Sheehan

 

 

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