Despite apparent progress in achieving gender equality, sexism continues to be pervasive — and scientists aren’t immune.
In a cyber talk delivered to the Duke Institute for Brain Sciences, professor Cordelia Fine of the University of Melbourne highlighted compelling evidence that neuroscientific research is yet another culprit of gender bias.
Fine says the persistent idea of gender essentialism contributes to this stagnation. Gender essentialism describes the idea that men and women are fundamentally different, specifically at a neurological level. This “men are from Mars, women are from Venus” attitude has spread from pop culture into experimental design and interpretation.
However, studies that look for sex differences in male and female behavior tend to show more similarities than differences. One study looked at 106 meta-analyses about psychological differences between men and women. The researchers found that in areas as diverse as temperament, communication styles, and interests, gender had a small effect, representing statistically small differences between the sexes.
Looking at fMRI data casts further doubt on how pronounced gender differences really are. A meta-analysis of fMRI studies investigating functional differences between men and women found a large reporting bias. Studies finding brain differences across genders were overrepresented compared to those finding similarities.
Of those small sex differences found in the central nervous system, Fine points out how difficult it is to determine their functional significance. One study found no difference between men and women in self-reported emotional experience, but found via fMRI that men exhibited more processing in the prefrontal cortex, or the executive center of the brain, than women. Although subjective experience of emotion was the same between men and women, the researchers reported that men are more cognitive, while women are more emotional.
Fine argues that conclusions like this are biased by gender essentialism. In a study she co-authored, Fine found that gender essentialism correlates with stronger belief in gender stereotypes, that gender roles are fixed, and that the current understanding of gender does not need to change.
When scientists allow preconceived notions about gender to bias their interpretation of results, our collective understanding suffers. The best way to overcome these biases is to ensure we are continuing to bring more and more diverse voices to the table, Fine said.
Fine spoke last month as part of the Society for Neuroscience Virtual Conference, “Mitigating Implicit Bias: Tools for the Neuroscientist.” The Duke Institute for Brain Sciences (@DukeBrain) made the conference available to the Duke community.