Duke Research Blog

Following the people and events that make up the research community at Duke.

Author: Victoria Priester

Starting Over in New Neighborhoods Helps Ex-Offenders Stay Out of Jail

Are prisoners who go back to their old neighborhoods upon release more or less likely to get arrested again than those who move? That’s the question
University of Oxford sociology professor David Kirk posed in a seminar he gave at Duke March 28. Recidivism is the tendency of a convicted criminal to re-offend, and Kirk wondered if the risk of recidivism might be lower when former prisoners reside in a geographic area different from where they lived prior to incarceration.

           To test his hypothesis, Kirk first designed a study in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina. A full 72 percent of dwellings in New Orleans were damaged in some manner following the hurricane, but the neighborhoods that were hit the hardest tended to be areas that were socioeconomically disadvantaged and home to ethnic minorities. These also tended to be areas to which released prisoners would have returned. Realizing they would not be able to return because of the damage, Kirk designed a study to compare the likelihood of recidivism in people who moved to a different parish pre vs. post-Katrina. The results of the study showed that 50 percent of people were induced to move post-Katrina, compared to 25 percent before Katrina. Parolees who moved to a new neighborhood were less likely to be rearrested.

            Based on the Moving to Opportunity (MTO) project, a government-funded housing mobility program in the 1990’s for poor families in five cities, Kirk decided to build on his Katrina results to launch a pilot program in Maryland called MOVE, or Maryland Opportunity through Vouchers Experiment. In the first design, the treatment group received a six-month housing subsidy upon release, but it had to be used in a new jurisdiction. The control group received a six-month subsidy in their home jurisdiction. In the results for this experiment, no one in either group that received free housing was rearrested. However, in the control group where released prisoners received no free housing and returned to their old neighborhoods, 22 percent were rearrested.

           The second design gave no subsidy for staying in the home jurisdiction, but incentivized moving to a new city with free housing. In the Maryland experiment, the ‘home’ jurisdiction was Baltimore, and the treatment group housing subsidy was in Prince George’s County, about forty-five minutes away in neighboring Washington, D.C. The pilot implemented four prisons in the state of Maryland and male prisoners hailing from Baltimore were eligible, with the exception of sex offenders.

Graph courtesy of David Kirk, University of Oxford

In the second design where the treatment group got free housing in a new environment and the control group moved to their old communities with no free housing, 22 percent of the treatment group was rearrested compared to 57 percent of the control group. Kirk explained that this second design is more practical than the first because only one group has to receive subsidized housing, thus it is half the cost of the first design. However, since the treatment group gets free housing and moves in the second design, it is harder to tease out the exact reason for lower rearrest rates. Other general trends Kirk has found through his research are that younger individuals who have been imprisoned tend to benefit more from district changes than older individuals. There is also a much larger gap between ‘movers’ and ‘stayers’ in rearrest rates for women, so Kirk hopes to conduct future studies involving female released prisoners.

Post by Victoria Priester

Victoria Priester

When policy changes opportunities — intentionally and unintentionally

Assistant professor Deondra Rose researches the intersection between political history and policymaking. Photo from Duke Sanford School of Public Policy.

The intent of the National Defense of Education Act in 1958 was not to expand the rights for women in higher education. But it happened.

That’s something Duke Sanford assistant professor Deondra Rose called “accidental egalitarianism” in her talk at The Regulator Bookshop in Durham on Jan. 29. Rose discussed citizenship from the lens of historical policy research.

During the 1950s, the Soviet Union and the United States were in fierce competition to be the first country in space. This was the push the US government needed to start putting more funding towards higher education for a greater subset of the population. The 1944 GI Bill was the beginning of government-funded need-based financial aid for higher education, but until this point, aid had only been given to white men.

In Congress at this time, southern Democrats did not want to pass any legislation that would affect segregation, but at the same time, policymakers also needed to produce a policy that would be approved by northerners, who would not pass any policy that appeared discriminatory. They made the wording of the National Defense of Education Act intentionally vague to please both sides, and as a result it greatly expanded provisions for scholarships and loans to all kinds of students in higher education.

Much of professor Rose’s talk, entitled “Citizens by Degree” after her book, was centered around breaking down the idea of citizenship into different degrees of afforded opportunities. “First class citizens” — usually white Americans — are generally afforded all of the rights that come with being an American citizen without opposition, she said. Second class citizens, usually minorities and women, can miss out on opportunities for advancement afforded to others because of their minority status.

Rose also discussed how we can re-define the implications of certain terms such as “welfare state” to be used positively. Government assistance is not simply temporary assistance to new families, families with children or food stamps, but also includes Pell Grants and need-based financial aid. Similarly, “regulation” sometimes carries negative connotations, but Title IX can be thought of “regulation” that ensures women equal access in higher education.

Photo from Annual White House Summit on Historically Black Colleges and Universities (whitehouse.gov).

Rose’s latest research focuses on the relationship between policy, citizenship and education, and her next book is about historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). In her political history research, she found that Title III is all about HBCUs, and the wording of the act suggests we as a nation ought to support and prize these institutions.

Rose wants to learn more about the role the US government has played in empowering HBCUs, and the role of HBCUs in restructuring political power — for example, 60 percent of black judges in the US have at least one degree from an HBCU.

At one point in history, the obstacle to higher education for second class citizens was access, then affordability, but have those two obstacles been completely overcome? What are new obstacles to higher education?

Rose believes that policies have the power to reshape politics by reshaping citizens, and we must keep finding and tackling obstacles to higher education.

By Victoria Priester

Meet Dr. Sandra K. Johnson, Engineering “Hidden Figure”

When Dr. Sandra K. Johnson first tried her hand at electrical engineering during a summer institute in high school, she knew that she was born to be an electrical engineer. Now, as the first African-American woman to receive a Ph.D. in computer engineering in the United States, Johnson visited Duke to share her story as a “hidden figure” and inspire not just black women, but all students not to be discouraged by obstacles they may face in pursuit of their passion.

Though she did discuss her achievements, Johnson’s talk also made it clear that more than successes, it was the opposition she faced that most motivated her to persevere in electrical engineering. While pursuing a Master’s degree at Stanford, she met Dr. William Shockley, who in his free time was conducting research he believed would prove that African Americans were intellectually inferior to other races. Johnson had originally been planning on just finishing her program with a Master’s and then going into the workforce, but after hearing what this man was trying to prove, she decided she would prove to him that she was capable of doing anything that the non-black students in the same program could do. She finished the program with a Ph.D. in electrical engineering. She continued to make this declaration to anyone who didn’t believe she was capable: “before I leave this place, I will make a believer out of you.”

Dr. Johnson is the founder, CTO and CEO of Global Mobile Finance, Inc., a finance and tech startup based in Research Triangle Park, NC. Photo from BlackComputeHER.

While mapping out her own path to pursuing her goals, Johnson also firmly believed in making the path easier for other black people pursuing advanced degrees. When asked what the current generation of students could be doing to help themselves, she said to find mentors and to mentor others. Johnson shared an anecdote of sitting in a lab at Stanford waiting to begin an experiment when a man walked up to her and said she was in the wrong place. After talking to him for several minutes and showing him that she knew even more about the subject than he did and was in the right place, she told him that the next time someone who looked like her walked into the lab, not to be so sure of himself. Johnson went on to become an IBM Fellow, an IEEE Fellow, and a member of the prestigious Academy of Electrical Engineers. At the end of her talk, Johnson discussed what she believes is the best way to expedite change — to have people of color as founders and CEOs of major corporations that have the power to increase minority representation in their workforce. This is what she intends to do with her own company, Global Mobile Finance, Inc. If her current track record is any indication, there is no doubt her company will become a major corporation in the years to come, opening more doors for black women and other minorities pursuing their passions.

Post by Victoria Priester

Considerations about AIDS from Brazilian literature

To know what illness is, you have to be ill first.

This was one of the points that post-doctoral student and essayist  Milena Mulatti Magri emphasized in her talk on Oct. 15. She was discussing Brazilian writer Caio Fernando Abreu’s writings about AIDS and its effect on groups who already faced societal prejudice before the breakout of AIDS in the 1980’s and 90’s, when patients were identified mainly as homosexual.

By studying research done by Professor Vladimir Safatle and physician and philosopher Georges Canguilhem, Magri has pieced together that health is seen as a form of normativity and disease as a deviation. Thus, ostracizing and excluding those who contract disease is seen as justifiable because they have deviated from what is seen as normal, even when the disease is not the fault of the patient.

Magri has also analyzed essays about the relationship between disease, metaphor and patient stigma, such as cancer patients who, in addition to combating the illness growing unwelcome inside their own bodies, also have to deal with social stigmas that come with disease, such as cancer as a representation for evil.

Brazilian author and columnist Caio Fernando Abreu. (Image from KD Frases.)

However, while Magri emphasized that social metaphors of different diseases should be deconstructed, she has also found that literature and personal writing can be a way to discuss and otherwise “incommunicable experience.”

During a time when it was seen as shameful to have AIDS, Caio Fernando Abreu began a biweekly publication of his health chronicles in the newspaper O Estado de São Paulo, which was one of the first instances of someone publicly discussing their experience with AIDS from the perspective of the ill person, as opposed to from the perspective of doctors or health experts.

Abreu’s columns confronted the difficulty of living with disease and living in proximity to death, and discuss the increased social prejudice as a result of the disease. Abreu also wrote a play called “O homem e amancha” (in English, “The Man and the Stain”), which is an intertextual reading of the famous Spanish novel Don Quijote de la Mancha. In her talk, Magri explained that “Mancha,” which in English means “stain,” can refer to both the home of Don Quijote before he sets off of on his adventures and the rare skin cancer that often accompanies AIDS called Kaposi Sarcoma, which forms lesions on the skin that resemble stains.

Abreu intended to use his own experiences to question the social prejudice against AIDS, and there Magri highlighted a marked change, even between his own writings at the beginning of his diagnosis compared to those at the end of his life, when he spoke openly and without metaphor about suffering that is amplified by social exclusion. 

Magri believes that Abreu’s writings were pioneering acts of courage, and that from his writing we learn to empathize rather than to judge and stigmatize.

Post by Victoria Priester

Victoria Priester

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