Sometimes a great move can have grave consequences — particularly when that move is a massive migration. In the 20th Century, millions of African-Americans relocated from the Deep South to search for greater quality of life in an exodus known as the Great Migration. However, the gains many made were clouded by higher mortality rates in old age. Despite having access to greater opportunities for work and education, Duke economist Seth Sanders found that men and women who relocated to the North and West were more likely to die before reaching their 70s than their counterparts who remained in the rural South. Here’s a glimpse at how city living took a late-life toll on migrants:

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